LUARS Research 2019 – High yielding crop varieties
Dr. Tarlok Singh Sahota CCA
- Twenty four varieties were evaluated; 16 of which were CWRS (mostly new).
- Highest grain yield (6.44 MT/ha) was obtained with AAC Wheatland. The next best two varieties in grain yield were AAC Crossfield (5.99 MT/ha) and Prosper (5.98 MT/ha).
- Grain yield from AAC Penhold (CPSR; year 2016’s highest yielding variety), cultivated on farms in Thunder Bay, was only 4.59 MT/ha. It’s time to replace AAC Penhold with other high yielding varieties!
- Highest straw (7.24 MT/ha) and biomass (12.62 MT/ha) yields were obtained with AAC Warman that gave 5.39 MT/ha grain yield.
- Grain protein content in the high yielding varieties was; AAC Viewfield 1 %, AAC Wheatland 17.8 %, AAC Goodwin and AAC Crossfield 16.9 %, Prosper 16.6 % and AAC Penhold 16.1 %.
- Ten high yielding barley varieties (2 two row and 8 six row) were compared for their production potential.
- Order of grain yield in the three top yielding varieties was Boroe (7.65 MT/ha) = Synasolis (7.64 MT/ha) ≥ Oceanik (7.30 MT/ha).
- Among the 2 row varieties, AAC Goldman (6.78 MT/ha) recorded higher grain yield than CDC Bow (5.40 MT/ha).
- Encore with a grain yield of 55 MT/ha), produced the highest straw (7.66 MT/ha) and biomass (14.20 MT/ha) yields.
Malting Barley Varieties:
- Eleven varieties were evaluated. AAC Goldman was the new variety added this year.
- Three top grain yielding (6.00 MT/ha) varieties were Lowe, CDC Copeland and AAC Connect. CDC Bow that has been producing the highest grain yield in the past lagged behind in grain yield (4.80 MT/ha) this year. It seems that late seeding didn’t suit CDC Bow and it didn’t like the heat during July-August this year. OAC 21 had the lowest grain yield (2.71 MT/ha).
- Grain yield of other varieties ranged from 5.34 MT/ha (Bentley) to 5.95 MT/ha in CDC Kindersley.
- Averaged over 2017-’19, CDC Bow produced the highest grain (6.54 MT/ha), straw (9.51 MT/ha) and biomass (16.05 MT/ha) yields. And, two second best varieties in grain yield were CDC Kindersley (6.03 MT/ha) and AAC Synergy (5.92 MT/ha).
- Lowe recorded the highest straw yield (8.37 MT/ha) followed by AAC Goldman (7.67 MT/ha) and AAC connect (7.22 MT/ha).
- Biomass yield was in the order of Lowe (14.40 MT/ha) ≥ Bentley (13.26 MT/ha) ≥ AAC Connect (13.21 MT/ha).
- Malting quality parameters tested last year indicated an excellent quality! Grain protein content was within limits for all varieties except OAC 21 (14.1 %) and Newdale (13.7 %). Plumpness of grains was acceptable; above 90 % in all varieties except OAC 21 and Newdale (> 80 %, which is acceptable!). Chitted seeds from 0-0.5, and wheat seeds, wild oats seeds, green seeds and Ergot were zero in almost all varieties (except OAC with high 40 score). There was hardly any dockage or stained seeds.
- 2019 results revealed that OAC21 had the highest grain protein content (15.1 %). Two out of other varieties tested for grain protein content had higher than 13 % protein (Copeland4 % and AAC Goldman 13.8 %). Grain protein in other varieties ranged from 12.1 to 12.5 %.
- Nine oat varieties were evaluated for their yield potential.
- AC Rigodon (6.04 MT/ha) and CDC Arborg (5.96 MT/ha) produced the highest grain yield.
- Grain yield from the two new milling oat varieties Ore 3541M and Ore 3542M was 4.74 and 4.86 MT/ha, respectively.
- AAC Bullet registered the highest straw yield (7.00 MT/ha).
- Biomass yield (≥ 11.8 MT/ha) was highest with AC Rigodon, CDC Arborg, and AAC Bullet.
Winter Wheat Varieties (seeded on September 5, 2018):
- Twelve winter wheat varieties from the west and east of Canada, including Gallus, AAC Icefield, JDC78 and AAC Wildfire, were compared for their production potential.
- Keldin (8.18 MT/ha), Gallus (7.67 MT/ha) and AAC Gateway (6.66 MT/ha) were the three highest grain yielding varieties.
- CDC Buteo recorded the highest straw yield (10.84 MT/ha), followed by AAC Wildlife (9.57 MT/ha) and Keldin (9.09 MT/ha).
- Keldin (17.26 MT/ha) and Gallus (16.62 MT/ha) had the highest Biomass yields. These two varieties had a total winter kill in the previous year.
- However, the grain, straw and biomass yield differences between the varieties was not statistically significant.
- JDC 78 was the most dwarf (85 cm tall) and Swainson the tallest variety (114 cm). AAC Gateway with a height of 96 cm was a medium variety
√Late seeded Winter Wheat Varieties (seeded on September 12, 2018):
- Out of the three varieties (JDC 78, Lexington and CDC Falcon), JDC 78 produced the highest grain (7.05 MT/ha) and biomass yield (14.55 MT/ha), and Lexington the highest straw yield (7.48 MT/ha). The yield differences were not significant though.
- JDC 78 was the most dwarf (86 cm tall) and Lexington the tallest variety (99 cm).
Grain Legumes and Oil Seeds Varieties:
- Twenty one varieties were compared for their grain production potential.
- Lono R2 like last year gave the highest gain yield (2.12 MT/ha) though the yield this year was much less than that in the last year (4.54 MT/ha); most likely because we were late to seed this year (on June 3). Other four varieties which gave equally good grain yield (1.99 to 2.11 MT/ha) to Lono R2 were NSC Tilston RR2Y, PV16 S004 RR2X, S006 – M4X and NSC Sperling RR2X.
- Grain yield in other varieties ranged from 0.90 MT/ha (S0009 – M2) to 1.94 MT/ha (S006 – W5/and NSC Greenridge RR2Y).
Edible Bean Varieties:
- Ten edible bean varieties from different classes and of different colours (mostly new) were evaluated for grain yield.
- AAC Shock – Navy beans (2.62 MT/ha), AAC Scotty – Cranberry beans (2.61 MT/ha), AAC Argosy – Navy beans (2.57 MT/ha) and AAC Whitestar – Great Northern (2.53 MT/ha) gave better grain yield than all other varieties (1.54-2.39 MT/ha).
- Earlired that gave 2.9 MT/ha grain yield last year and had been on top in edible bean variety yields in the past several years produced 2.39 MT/ha grain yield this year. Overall the edible beans grain yield this year was less than that in the previous years.
Edible beans if they fetch a good price in the market could be an integral part of the cropping systems in northwestern Ontario!
- Three lentil varieties (two yellow and one green) were evaluated.
- Grain yield was in the order of CDC Impulse CL (green; 3.66 MT/ha) ≥ Lima (3.55 MT/ha) > CDC Rosetown (2.52 MT/ha). All varieties matured in 116 days.
- Straw yield depicted a trend similar to the grain yield and was 5.65 MT/ha in CDC Impulse CL, 4.85 MT/ha in Lima and 4.70 in Rosetown.
Liberty Canola Varieties:
- Five varieties were evaluated.
- L252 recorded the highest seed (5.74 MT/ha), straw (7.72 MT/ha) and biomass (13.46 MT/ha) yields. Seed yield from other varieties ranged from 4.12 MT/ha in L234PC to 4.86 MT/ha in L230. Seed yield from L241C, last year’s top yielding variety, was 4.81 MT/ha.
- Seed yield this year was lower than that during the previous years, likely due to excessive heat at flowering (July-August).
- P stands for ‘Shatter Reduction’ and C for Club Root resistance.
Other Canola Varieties (seeded late on June 7, 2019):
- Three varieties were compared; one each from Roundup, Clearfield and Liberty category.
- Seed yield was in the order of L241C (4.04 Mt/ha) ≥ PV 585 GC (3.96 MT/ha) > 2028 CL (2.79 MT/ha). Seed yields were low because of late seeding.
- Straw yield followed a similar trend to the seed yield; L241C (8.41MT/ha) = PV 585 GC (8.46 MT/ha) > 2028 CL (5.55 MT/ha).
- Harvest index (33-34 %) was the same in all varieties.
- AC 200 (Oriental mustard; 2.33 MT/ha) and AC Vulcan – Oriental mustard (2.15 MT/ha) produced higher seed yield than other varieties (AAC Brown 120; 1.65 MT/ha and Adagio; 1.41 MT/ha).
- Straw and biomass yields followed more or less a similar tend to the seed yield with Adagio recording the highest straw yield (4.81 MT/ha) and AC 200 recording the highest biomass yield (6.98 MT/ha).
- Compared to canola, mustard is a low input crop, is used for culinary purposes, can be sold in retail and could fetch a higher market price than canola!